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Ukrainian state standards of sawn timber

Sawn timber of hardwoods. Specifications

Sawn timber of softwoods. Specifications

Measurements and acceptance of sawn timber. Specifications

The basic defects and their account

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Feb 2015
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SAWN TIMBER OF SOFTWOODS
Technical requirements in accordance with GOST 8486-86 and GOST 24454-80

# Parameter, attribute, defect of wood, its arrangement Requirements on grades
Select (0 grade) 1 grade 2 grade 3 grade 4 grade
1 Species of wood coniferous species (under the specification of the buyer)
2 Nominal length, m:
for domestic market and export
from 1,0 up to 6,5 with gradation 0,25
for manufacturing container from 0,5 with gradation 0,1
for bridge blocks 3,25
for export from 0,9 up to 6,3 with gradation 0,3
3 Deviations from nominal length, mm from -25 up to +50
6 Deviations from nominal thickness and width, mm, at the nominal sizes:
up to 32 mm inclusive
from -1 up to +1
from 40 up to 100 mm inclusive from -2 up to +2
more than 100 mm from -3 up to +3
7 The least face width of unedged sawn timber, mm, at nominal thickness: from 16 up to 50 mm 50
from 60 up to 100 mm 60
from 125 mm and more 60 % of thickness
The note 1: The sizes of sawn timber on thickness and width are established for moisture content of 20%. At the greater or smaller moistness the sizes should be more or less on size of shrinkage in accordance with GOST 6782.1-75.
8 Sound intergrown knots:
diameter in percentage of width/ number for 1 m length, pieces:
face knots and arris knots
20/2 25/3 33/4 50/4 allowed
edge knots:
at thickness up to 40 mm
33/1 50/2 67/2 allowed/2
40 mm and more 25 (but no more than 15 mm) / 2 33/2 50/3 allowed/3
9 Partly intergrown knots and dead knots,
diameter in percentage of width / number on 1 m length (in the sum with intergrown knots), pieces:
face knots and arris knots
12,5/2 20/2 25/3 33/3 50/4
edge knots:
at thickness up to 40 mm
25/1 33/1 50/2 allowed/2 allowed/2
40 mm and more 10 mm / 1 25/2 33/2 67/2 allowed/3
10 Rotten and unsound knots not allowed  diameter - on standards for intergrown and dead knots, number - no more than half from their allowed quantity
The note 2: Diameter of a knot is measured on distance between two straight linees concerning a knot, parallel to a longitudinal axis of sawn timber.
The note 3: Knots with diameter less from 50% from permitted value are not taken into account.
The note 4: The stepson are normalized as dead knot, in the perfect grade stepson is not allowed.
The note 5: One knot with diameter on sizes of adjacent lower grade in sawn timber with length more than 3 m is allowed.
The note 6: On the area of length, that is equal to width of sawn timber, the sum of the sizes of knots on the direct line crossing this area in any direction, should not exceed the permitted diameter of a knot.
The note 7: Spike knots and two-edges arris knots with with the size on a small axis up to 6 mm and depth up to 3 mm in sawn timber more than 40 mm (except for a perfect grade) are allowed
The note 8: The number of knots is not standardized for cants (thickness and width of 100 mm and more).
11 Face and edge cracks, including cracks, extended on the end,
length, percentage of length of sawn timber:
shallow (with deep less 5mm or  less 1/10 of thickness for sawn timber with thickness more than 50mm)
16 25 33 50 allowed
deep (with deep more than 5mm or  more 1/10 of thickness for sawn timber with thickness more than 50mm) 10 16 33 50
12 Face through cracks, including extending on the end:
length, mm
100 150 200 - -
length, percentage of length of sawn timber - - - 16 25
13 End shakes (except for cracks from shrinkage (checks)), length, percentage of width of sawn timber not allowed 25 33 50 allowed
(on one of the ends)
The note 9: The permitted sizes of cracks are specified for sawn timber with moisture content of 22%. At the greater moisture these sizes have to been reduced twice.
14 The cross grain, % 5 allowed
15 Compression wood, percentage from the face area of sawn timber not allowed 20 allowed
16 Gum pockets:
number for on 1 m length of sawn timber, pieces
1 2 4 allowed
gum pocket length (on one side of sawn timber), mm 50 allowed
17 The pith and a double pith not allowed allowed
without ring shakes and radial cracks in sawn timber with thickness of 40 mm and more not allowed allowed
18 Bark pocket (one-sided): width, percentage of width of sawn timber not allowed 10 20 25 allowed
length, percentage of length of sawn timber 5 10 10
19 Cancer, length, percentage of length of sawn timber not allowed 20, but no more than 1 m 33 allowed
20 Fungus heartwood stains, the area, percentage from the area of face of sawn timber not allowed 10 20 allowed
21 Blue stain and mould:
surface
not allowed not allowed allowed
deep blue, the area,  percentage from the area of sawn timber 10 20 50 allowed
22 Rot: not allowed
Motley heartwood rot as spots and strips, the area,  percentage from the area of sawn timber not allowed 10
23 Wormholes, number of holes for 1 m length of sawn timber, pieces not allowed
(except for shallow on wane part)
2 3 6
24 Foreign bodies and impurities not allowed
25 Sharp wane,
width of unsawed face in percentage to the width of sawn timber
not allowed 50
width of unsawed edge in the percentage of  the length of sawn timber 25
26 Rough wane:
on faces and edges without limitation on length, the size of unsawed part in   percentage of width
16 16 16 33 allowed
the size of unsawed part on separate sections of edges in the percentage of width 33 33 33 66
length of the section in percentage of length of sawn timber 16 16 16 25
27 Butt trimming,
percentage of width or thickness of sawn timber
5 5 5 5 5
28 Tooth marks, snaking, shears, depth, mm no more than deviations from nominal thickness or width 3 allowed
29 Bow, spring and twist,
height of curvature in percentage of width of sawn timber
0,20 0,20 0,20 0,40 allowed
30 Cup, height of curvature in percentage of width of sawn timber 1 1 1 2 allowed
The note 10: Norms on warp are established for sawn timber with moisture of 22%. At the greater moisture the norms have to be reduced twice.
The note 11: The defects of the wood which has been not mentioned in the table are allowed.
The note 12: Sawn timber are delivered dry (moisture no more than 22%), natural dry or antiseptized natural dry.
The note 13: The quality rating of sawn timber should be made on the worst face and worst edge.


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