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About LiS Ltd. Offer & Pricing Round Timber Sawn Timber

Ukrainian state standards of sawn timber

Sawn timber of hardwoods. Specifications

Sawn timber of softwoods. Specifications

Measurements and acceptance of sawn timber. Specifications

The basic defects and their account

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MEASUREMENTS AND ACCEPTANCE OF SAWN TIMBER. SPECIFICATIONS.
Requirements in accordance with GOST 6564–84, GOST 6782.1–75, GOST 6782.2–75, OST 13–24–86

1.1. Means of measurements

Measurements are made by rulers, slide gauge and roulettes.

1.2. Measurement of thickness

Thickness is measured in any place of length, but not closer than 150 mm from the butt-ends.

1.3. Measurement of width  

Width of edging boards is measured in any place of length where the wane is not present, but not closer than 150 mm from butt-ends.

Width of edging boards with not parallel edges is  measured in the middle of length.

Width of not edging boards is measured in the middle of length as a half-sum of width of both faces (disregarding  bark and bast). Result of measurement is approximated up to 10 mm, shares up to 5 mm are not taken into account, and shares 5 mm and more are considered for 10 mm.

1.4. Measurement of length

Length of boards is measured on the least distance between butt-ends. Result of measurement is approximated to 0.01 m.

1.5. Determination of the nominal sizes

The nominal sizes on thickness and width of boards are defined after measurement of moistness (moisture content) in accordance with GOST 16588-91 with allowance for sizes of the shrinkage established by GOST 6782.1-75 (for coniferous boards) or GOST 6782.2-75 (for deciduous boards).

The size of shrinkage of green boards (moistness of 35% and more) and the mixed sawing at drying up to calculated moistness 10, 15 and 20% is indicated below in the table.

The nominal size of boards on thickness or width is established by comparison of the actual size of thickness or width of boards with the limiting sizes enlarged (at actual moistness that is more than settled) or attenuated (at moistness  less than settled) on size of shrinkage.

The nominal size of boards on length is established on comparison of the actual size of length with limit values of length (disregarding shrinkage on length).

SIZE OF SHRINKAGE OF GREEN BOARDS
At drying up to moisture content 8 - 10, 14 - 16, 20 - 22%

Nominal size of thickness or width, mm Fur-tree, pine, cedar, fir Larch Birch, aspen, poplar, oak, maple, alder, ash
Calculated moistness, %
8 - 10 14 - 16 20 - 22 8 - 10 14 - 16 20 - 22 8 - 10 14 - 16
Size of shrinkage, mm
13 0,8 0,7 0,5 1,0 0,9 0,7 - -
16 0,9 0,8 0,6 1,2 1,0 0,8 1,0 0,8
19 1,0 0,8 0,6 1,3 1,0 0,8 1,2 0,9
22 1,2 0,9 0,7 1,6 1,2 0,9 1,4 1,1
25 1,2 1,1 0,8 1,6 1,4 1,0 1,6 1,3
28 1,4 1,2 0,9 1,8 1,6 1,2 1,8 1,4
32 1,6 1,3 1,0 2,1 1,7 1,3 2,1 1,6
35 - - - - - - 2,3 1,8
40 2,0 1,6 1,2 2,6 2,1 1,6 2,6 2,0
45 2,2 1,8 1,4 2,9 2,3 1,8 2,9 2,3
50 2,4 2,0 1,5 3,1 2,6 2,0 3,2 2,5
55 - - - - - - 3,5 2,8
56 2,6 2,2 1,7 3,4 2,9 2,2 - -
60 2,8 2,4 1,8 3,6 3,1 2,3 3,9 3,0
63 2,9 2,5 1,9 3,8 3,3 2,5 - -
65 - - - - - - 4,2 3,3
66 3,1 2,6 2,0 4,0 3,4 2,6 - -
70 3,2 2,8 2,1 4,2 3,6 2,7 4,5 3,5
75 3,5 3,0 2,3 4,6 3,9 3,0 4,9 3,8
80 3,7 3,2 2,4 4,8 4,2 3,1 5,2 4,0
86 4,0 3,4 2,6 5,2 4,4 3,4 - -
90 4,2 3,6 2,7 5,5 4,7 3,5 5,8 4,5
96 4,4 3,6 2,7 5,7 4,7 3,5 - -
100 4,6 3,7 2,8 6,0 4,8 3,6 6,4 5,0
110 5,0 4,0 3,0 6,5 5,2 3,9 7,0 5,5
116 5,3 4,2 3,2 6,9 5,5 4,2 - -
120 5,4 4,4 3,3 7,0 5,7 4,3 7,7 6,0
125 5,6 4,7 3,4 7,3 6,1 4,4 - -
130 5,9 4,8 3,6 7,7 6,2 4,7 8,4 6,5
140 6,4 5,0 3,8 8,3 6,5 4,9 9,0 7,0
150 6,7 5,2 3,9 8,6 6,8 5,1 9,7 7,5
160 7,1 5,3 4,1 9,0 6,9 5,3 10,3 8,0
165 7,3 5,5 4,2 9,5 7,2 5,5 - -
170 7,6 5,7 4,4 9,9 7,4 5,7 11,0 8,5
180 8,0 6,1 4,4 10,4 7,9 5,7 11,7 9,0
190 8,4 6,4 4,7 10,9 8,3 6,1 12,3 9,5
200 8,9 6,7 4,9 11,6 8,7 6,4 13,0 10,0
210 9,2 7,1 5,2 12,0 9,2 6,8 13,6 10,5
220 9,7 7,4 5,4 12,6 9,6 7,0 14,2 11,0
230 10,0 7,7 5,7 13,0 10,0 7,4 14,7 11,5
240 10,5 8,1 5,9 13,7 10,5 7,7 15,5 12,0
250 10,9 8,4 6,2 14,2 10,9 8,1 16,2 12,5
254 11,0 8,5 6,3 14,3 11,1 8,2 - -
260 11,3 8,5 6,4 14,7 11,1 8,3 16,8 13,0
270 11,6 8,6 6,5 15,1 11,2 8,5 17,5 13,5
280 11,8 8,7 6,6 15,2 11,3 8,6 18,1 14,0
290 12,3 9,0 6,9 16,0 11,7 9,0 18,7 14,5
300 12,6 9,3 7,1 16,4 12,1 9,2 19,4 15,0

In the agreement one of the following methods of determination of the nominal sizes and separations of boards on suitable and deficient on the sizes should be indicated:

Variant 1:

Boards are considered suitable, if the actual sizes are not less than the least limit value and not more than the greatest limit value, stipulated as the standard or in the agreement. At infringement of this condition boards are considered deficient, and at scoping the nominal size is considered equal to the nominal size by agreement.

Example: the agreement stipulates delivery of green boards with nominal thickness of 25 mm, calculated moistness of 20%, size of shrinkage of 0,8 mm, permissible deviations from nominal thickness from-1 mm up to + 2 mm. The limiting sizes of green boards: the least 25 + 0,8 - 1 = 24,8 mm, the greatest 25 + 0,8 + 2 = 27,8 mm.

The green boards having thickness from 24,8 up to 27,8 mm, are considered suitable with nominal thickness 25 mm. The green boards having thickness less 24,8 or more 27,8 mm, are considered deficient with nominal thickness of 25 mm.

Variant 2:

Boards are considered suitable, if the actual sizes are not less than limit value, stipulated as the standard or the agreement. At infringement of this condition boards are considered deficient, and at scoping the nominal size is considered equal to the nominal size by agreement. Overestimate of the sizes is not considered to be a defect.

Example: the Agreement stipulates delivery of green boards with nominal thickness of 25 mm, calculated moistness of 20%, size of shrinkage of 0,8 mm, the bottom deviation from nominal thickness is not more than 1 mm. The least limiting size of crude sawn timber: 25 + 0,8 - 1 = 24,8 mm, the green boards having thickness of 24,8 mm and more are considered suitable with nominal thickness of 25 mm. The green boards having thickness less 24,8 mm, are considered deficient with nominal thickness of 25 mm.

Variant 3:

For boards the number of rating values of the sizes is established. All boards irrespective of value of the sizes are considered suitable. If the actual size less than the limit value, stipulated the standard or the agreement for the certain nominal size the nominal size of boards is reduced  to the nearest smallest gradation.

Example: the agreement stipulates delivery of green boards with nominal thickness of 25 mm, calculated moistness of 20%, size of shrinkage of 0,8 mm, permissible deviations from nominal length less - 1 mm. The least limiting size of green boards: 25 + 0,8 - 1 = 24,8 mm, the green boards having thickness of 24,8 mm and more are considered suitable with nominal thickness of 25 mm. The green boards having thickness less 24,8 mm, are considered suitable with nominal thickness of 22 mm.

Volume of boards is calculated as product of the nominal sizes on thickness, width and length.

The result of calculation of volume of one meter of length or one board is approximated up to 0,000001 m3, and consignments of boards - up to 0,001 m3.

3.1. Methods of measurement of volume

Measurement of volume of not edging boards is carried out by:

The choice of a method of measurement of volume is made by the seller and the buyer at making the contract. The seller and the buyer should use the same method of measurement of volume.

3.2. A piece method

The volume of boards moistness of 20% also is less equal to product of nominal thickness, for nominal length and for the width measured according to item 1.3.

The volume of boards with moistness more than 20% is equal to product of nominal thickness, for nominal length, for the width measured according to item 1.3, and on the correction factor which takes into account shrinkage of boards on width.

Value of correction factor: coniferous boards - 0,96, deciduous boards - 0,95.

3.3. A geometrical method of measurement of volume of the parcel of boards

3.3.1. The parcel of boards, measured by the geometrical method, should meet the following requests:

  • Butt-ends of boards on the one side of the parcel should be leveled,
  • Boards in horizontal lines should be stacked closely to each other without overcloak of one onto another,
  • The parcel should have identical width on all length, lateral faces of the parcel should be vertical, displacement of separate extreme boards from a vertical of a lateral face inside or outside of the parcel up to half of width of a board, but not more than 100 mm is supposed.

3.3.2. The geometrical method provides:

  • Measurement of height, width and lengths of the parcel,
  • Calculation of stacked volume,
  • Calculation of dense volume of boards in the parcel.

3.3.3. Height of the parcel is measured on the part of leveled butt-ends on middle of width. The measured value is reduced by thickness of linings. The result is  approximated to 0,01 m.

3.3.4. Width of the parcel is measured on the part of leveled butt-ends on middle of height on distance between two conditionally conducted vertical lines limiting lateral faces of the parcel. The result is approximated to 0,01 m.

3.3.5. Length of parcel L is calculated under the formula: L = Lp + Llp * K, where: Lp - length dense part of package, m; Llp - length of leaky part of the parcel, m; K - factor.

Value of factor K is accepted equal to: 0,67 - if quantity of butt-ends in a leaky part is more than 50% from quantity of boards in the parcel; 0, 50 - if the quantity of butt-ends in a leaky part is equal 50% from quantity of boards in the parcel; 0,33 - if quantity of butt-ends in a leaky part is less than 50% from quantity of boards in the parcel.

The result is approximated down to accepted gradation on length of boards.

3.3.6. Stacked volume of the parcel is defined by multiplication of height,  width and length of the parcel.

3.3.7. Dense volume of the parcel is defined by multiplication of stacked volume on the factor of transfer which is mentioned below in the table.

The result of calculation of volume of the parcel is approximated up to 0,001 m3 .

SCALING FACTORS FOR TRANSFER STACKED VOLUME OF THE PARCEL TO DENSE VOLUME

Group of species
Moistness
Length of boards, m
Value of factor at thickness of boards (mm)
16 19 22 25 32 40 44 50 60 75 - 100
Coniferous species
Moistness more than 20%, length:
2,00 - 6,50 m
0,59 0,60 0,60 0,61 0,63 0,65 0,66 0,67 0,70 0,75
1,00 - 1,75 m 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67 0,67
Moistness of 20% and less, length:
2,00 - 6,50 m
0,64 0,65 0,65 0,66 0,68 0,71 0,72 0,73 0,75 0,79
1,00 - 1,75 m 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73
Deciduous species
Moistness more than 20%, length:
2,00 - 6,50 m
- 0,52 0,53 0,54 0,57 0,60 0,62 0,64 0,68 0,74
1,00 - 1,75 m - 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66
Moistness of 20% and less, length:
2,00 - 6,50 m
- 0,58 0,59 0,60 0,63 0,67 0,69 0,71 0,75 0,82
1,00 - 1,75 m 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73

3.4.1. Methods provide:

  • Count of number of boards or parcels in a consignment,
  • Selective determination of average volume of a board or the parcel,
  • Calculation of the  volume of consignment.

3.4.2. Selective determination of average volume of a board or the parcel

Selection of boards or parcels in sample is made in a casual way from different places of a consignment.

Selective determination of average volume is  made for homogeneous parcels on the sizes from boards of one thickness.

The parcels selected in sample, should conform the requirements, indicated in item 3.3.1.

The volume of sample should correspond to the table indicated below.

VOLUME OF SAMPLE FOR DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE VOLUME OF THE BOARD OR THE PARCEL

Method of measurement Volume of sample at length of boards
Boards of one length Boards of one length, an admixture of short ones up to 15% Boards of not more than four adjacent lengths
On number of boards Not less than 3% of boards of a consignment, but not less than 60 pieces. Not less than 4% of boards of a consignment, but not less than 80 pieces. Not less than 7% of boards of a consignment, but not less than 120 pieces.
On number of parcels Not less than 3 parcels Not less than 4 parcels Not less than 8 parcels

Volume of boards is defined according to item 3.2.

Volume of parcels in sample is defined by the geometrical method according to item 3.3.

The average volume of a board or the parcel is calculated by division of dense volume of boards in sample on number of boards or parcels.

The result of calculation of average volume of a board is approximated up to 0,000001 m3, and average volume of the parcel - up to 0,0001 m3.

3.4.3. Volume of boards in a consignment is calculated by multiplication of average volume of a board to number of boards in a consignment or multiplication of average volume of the parcel to number of parcels in a consignment.

4.1. The sizes and quality of boards are checked by the selective control. In the agreement on delivery application of the continuous control can be stipulated.

The volume of sample and acceptance numbers are indicated below in the table.

VOLUME OF SAMPLE FOR THE CONTROL OF THE SIZES AND QUALITY OF BOARDS

Quantity of boards in a consignment, pieces Quantity of boards in sample, pieces Acceptance number, pieces
up to 280 32 3
281 - 500 50 5
501 - 1200 80 7
1201 - 3200 125 10
3201 - 10000 200 14
10001 - 15000 315 21
Consignment is considered fulfilling the conditions of the agreement if the quantity of boards in the sample, not appropriate to these requests, is less than acceptance number or it is equal to it.

4.2. Sample for the control of a roughness should consist not less than of 10 boards.

4.3. The volume of sample for measurement of moistness of boards is mentioned below in the table.

VOLUME OF SAMPLE FOR MEASUREMENT OF MOISTNESS OF BOARDS

Quantity of boards in a consignment, pieces Quantity of samples for the moistness control, pieces
electrohydrometers drying-weight method
up to 280 32 3
281 - 500 50 5
501 - 1200 80 7
1201 - 3200 125 10
3201 - 10000 200 14
10001 - 15000 315 21


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